Methods of Prestressing

There are two methods of prestressing: • Pre-tensioning: Apply prestress to steel strands before casting concrete; • Post-tensioning: Apply prestress to steel tendons after casting concrete. Pre-tensioning This is the most common form for precast sections. In Stage 1 the wires or strands are stressed; in Stage 2 the concrete is cast around the stressed … Read more


In addition to the sustainability issues raised in the previous chapter, which also apply here, the largest issue concerning the sustainability of light gauge steel construction is the high thermal conductivity of the framing members. If a dwelling framed with light gauge steel members is framed, insulated, and Þ nished as if it were framed … Read more

The Concept of Light Gauge Steel Construction

  Light gauge steel construction is the noncombustible equivalent of wood light frame construction. The external dimensions of the standard sizes of light gauge members correspond closely to the dimensions of the standard sizes of nominal 2-inch (38-mm) framing lumber. These steel members are used in framing as closely spaced studs, joists, and rafters in … Read more


FABRIC STRUCTURES Fabric structures are not new: People have constructed tents since the earliest days of human civilization. During the last several decades, however, new, durable fabrics and computerized methods for Þ nding form and forces have helped to create a new construction type: a permanent, rigid, stable fabric structure that will last for 20 … Read more

Longer Spans in Steel

Standard wide-ß angle beams are suitable for the range of structural spans normally encountered in of ces, schools, hospitals, apartment buildings hotels, retail stores, warehouses, and other buildings in which columns may be brought to earth at intervals without obstructing the activities that take place within. For many other types of buildings non athletic buildings, … Read more

Fireproofing of Steel Framing

Building Þ res are not hot enough to melt steel, but are often able to weaken it sufÞ ciently to cause structural failure (Figures 11.68 and 11.69). For this reason, building codes generally limit the use of exposed steel framing to buildings of one to Þ ve stories, where escape in case of Þ re … Read more