CAM Software – Understanding and Using CAM

The decision to use CAM or not is largely dependent upon both the time and geometry of the item to be manufactured. Often, users either already have a CAD drawing or can rather quickly produce one to obtain any required dimensions in which to reproduce the item. The use of CAM affords the user to … Read more

ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS – Indicators and Alarms

                          Indicator and Alarm Symbols Meaning Bell, electric Buzzer Horn – General Annunciator – General Indicating Light – General  Use the following to specify color A – Amber B- Blue C-Clear G-Green Ne-Neon O-Orange OP-Opalescent P-Purple R-Red W-White Y-Yellow Relay Symbols Meaning The … Read more

Electrical Symbols – Contacts, Switches, Contactors and Relays

Symbol Name Description  Relay Contact Shown with relay in de-energized or in reset position. (Show relay coil designation near contact.) Timing Relay Contact TDC indicates contact closes at end of timing period. TDO contact opens at end of timing period. Coil Relay, contactors, circuit breaker, solenoid etc. (Show device designation, X1) Coil Timing Relay – … Read more

Construction Business Environment

Many skilled and experienced professionals are finding themselves on their own, seeking employment for the first time after being forced to abandon the safety of an organization that regularly delivered their paycheck each month. As a result, an increasing number of professionals are rethinking their employment strategy. Cash flow, health insurance, and retirement dominate this … Read more

Building Codes and Barrier-Free Design

The purpose of building codes is to govern the construction of public buildings, commercial buildings, and places of residence and to regulate construction and thereby provide occupants with a safe and healthy environment. Building codes are an imperative part of the design and construction process. They define minimum standards for safety and comfort that must … Read more

Blueprint – Interpreting Specifications

Standard building specifications are written documents that go with the construction drawings and describe the materials as well as the installation methods. They also prescribe the quality standards of construction expected on the project. In the United States, the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) has established a widely recognized format of organization for technical specifications. CSI … Read more

Blueprint – Understanding Schedules

9.1 OVERVIEW A schedule as applied to construction working drawings is an organized method of presenting general notes or lists of materials, building components (doors, windows, etc.), equipment, and so forth in a drawing in tabulated form. The main purpose of incorporating schedules into a set of construction documents is to provide clarity, location, sizing, … Read more

Blueprint – The Meaning of Symbols

8.1 GENERAL INFORMATION Blueprint drawings—as applied to the building-construction industry—are generally used to show how a building, object, or system is to be constructed, implemented, modified, or repaired. One of the main functions of graphic symbols on construction drawings is to reference other drawings within the set. For example, a circle drawn around an area … Read more

Blueprint – Understanding Industrial Blueprints

7.1 GENERAL Industrial drawings may often necessitate more description and detail than some other types of working drawings, mainly because of the close tolerances and finished surface requirements. In this chapter we will cover some of the more common terms and symbols that the blueprint reader must be familiar with in order to read machine … Read more

Blueprint – Layout of Construction Drawings

GENERAL OVERVIEW CIVIL DRAWINGS ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS MECHANICAL DRAWINGS PLUMBING DRAWINGS ELECTRICAL DRAWINGS MISCELLANEOUS DRAWINGS GENERAL OVERVIEW For identification purposes, drawings associated with construction and the building trades can be categorized into four main types, preliminary drawings, presentation drawings, working drawings, and shop drawings. Preliminary Drawings These drawings are essentially intended to be concept … Read more